Foreign currency trading in pittsburgh
The Standard Charter of a kolkhoz, which since the early 1930s had the force of law in the USSR, is a model of cooperative principles in print. It speaks of the kolkhoz as a “form of agricultural production cooperative of peasants that voluntarily unite for the purpose of joint agricultural production based on collective labor”. They imposed detailed work programs and nominated their preferred managerial candidates. The question of internal organization was important in the new kolkhozes. The most basic measure was to divide the workforce into a number of groups, generally known as brigades, for working purposes. By July 1929 it was already normal practice for the large kolkhoz of 200-400 households to be divided into temporary or permanent work units of 15-30 households.
See collectivisation in the USSR and agriculture in the Soviet Union for general discussion of Soviet agriculture. In practice, most kolkhozy did not pay their “members” in cash at all. In 1946, 30 percent of kolkhozy paid no cash for labor at all, 10. 6 paid no grain, and 73. 2 percent paid 500 grams of grain or less per day worked. In 1948 the Soviet government charged wholesalers 335 rubles for 100 kilograms of rye, but paid the kolkhoz roughly 8 rubles. Nor did such prices change much to keep up with inflation.
Members of kolkhozy had the right to hold a small area of private land and some animals. Before the Russian Revolution of 1917 a peasant with less than 13. In both kolkhozy and sovkhozy, villagers were prevented from leaving, and especially from moving from rural areas to urban areas. Source: Statistical Yearbook of the USSR, various years, State Statistical Committee of the USSR, Moscow.